How Are Volcanoes Formed


The universe is too big for our imagination and we all lived on a planet named earth. In this article, we will discuss the structure of the earth (external and internal), the atmosphere of the earth, the formation of mountains and seas, and how volcanoes are formed? and types of volcanoes and so on.

  • External Structure of Earth

There is a perspective about the shape of our mother earth is that it is round. But after we flew in space this perspective prove wrong. As per this one thing become crystal clear that earth is made up of soil, rock, and water. At present we know the earth is surrounded by a cover which is known as the atmosphere.

  • Internal Structure of Earth

The earth has many layers. The first layer on which every living being placed its sole is known as the crust. Below this is a mantle layer it has a depth of about 2900 kilometers. It has magma consisting of molten rock and gases. After the mantle layer, the next layer comes is the core. The earth’s temperature increases as we go deeper into the earth’s core. The core temperature ranges between 4000-5000 Celsius.

Discovery of inside Earth

To discover what is inside the earth took a lot of time to stop earthquake and nucleus explosions become a great way order to know the composition of the Earth’s interior. The composition of the earth is discovered by Scientists by the nuclear explosions by this seismic waves are produced and earth interior shows.

Earth is round

Before 3,000 people believed that the earth has a floating shape. Because the ships disappeared at the horizon this thing become a wonderful mystery. sailors returned safely to prove that ships did not fall off at the earth at the top so the theory that Earth is flat become wrong and it was believed that Earth’s shape must be round.


The atmosphere is a gaseous cover that is enveloping the planet . doubt atmosphere life cannot be imagined around the one-fifth atmosphere is Oxygen and the remaining is nitrogen. The atmosphere consists of several layers. The atmosphere has five layers These are:

  • Troposphere
  • Stratosphere
  • Mesosphere
  • Ionosphere
  • Exosphere

All animals, Human Beings, and plants are live in the troposphere and all-weather activities happen in the troposphere, the stratosphere, mesosphere, ionosphere, and exosphere come after the troposphere.

Did the Earth always look As it Does today?

It is a curious question how our mother earth is looked around billions of years ago. According to the research our earth’s origin is around 4.8 billion years ago. Also during these years, our earth undergoes several changes to its surface and atmosphere. They say in its initial stage the earth is a fire of a ball. Then rain occurs on the earth for several years and the temperature of the earth cools down and its surface becomes solid.

Now We have all studied that or were taught by our teachers that Earth’s crust has many plates. These plates move continuously and due to this displacement in tectonic plates, several mountains are formed. Like Himalayas and oceans like Indian Oceans. During this displacement in the plates, there are many species of living animals and plants are extinct. Also new are comes to discover.

How many plates are there in the earth and the discovery of continental drift?

According to the discovery, Earth has seven large and ten smaller plates. There is a hot and viscous layer on which these plates are move in continuous motion. Due to this phenomenon rocks present in the earth are pushed in an upward direction. The upper layer of the Earth breaks and forms a mountain-like structure. In Germany, a geologist named Alfred Wegener discover the continental drift in the earth.

According to him around 300 million years ago all the seven continents now present are a single large continent named Pangaea. Due to Shifts in the tectonic plates, all the Continents are formed as a separation from a single one. Also at present, there is a shift of 6 cm per year is observed.

How Mountains And Seas Formed?

For the formation of mountains, there are two methods. The first one is when two tectonic plates collide with each other. During this one plate is below and one is above due to this landmass shift in upward direction and mountain is formed. The second one is when two continent collides with each other and due to this plates are bend at a specific point. This point is the point of contact of two tectonic plates and this folds up and mountains are formed.

The Himalayas and the Alps mountain formed during this phenomenon. Also, Seas are formed due to cracks in the upper layer of the earth due to the phenomenon known as Expansion. Atlantic has formed due to the expansion process around 200 million years ago. Now in Africa, this type of expansion is seen between Malawi and Ethiopia due to the eruption of a volcano.

How are Volcanoes Formed?

We all know that Earth has several layers. A layer named Mantle has molten rock and gases in it called magma. This magma pushes itself in an upwards direction through the pours in the crust of the earth. This natural occurrence is named a Volcano. Volcanoes are of several types some of them are dangerous due to their explosive nature. Because they have unexpected eruptions and eruptions cannot be predicted.

Types of volcanoes and when do volcanos become dangerous

As earth’s surface is different in every region. So the material or the matter that comes from the core of the earth due to eruption is also different. Also if magma comes from the earth has a temperature above 1000 celsius. Then it has a dark color and flows in thin layers and motion would be slow. The slope of the volcano would be gradual. When magma is colder, then it has more viscosity and erupts in explosions. It has a steeper cone.

As the core of the earth has heat, due to this hot water sources are found in several places near volcanos. As the earth is a populated planet and human beings are living near volcanos. Volcanos only become dangerous when we are failed to predict their eruption. Due to these times, a living being has to suffer his life. When an explosion occurs in the volcano many types of hot gasses dust and ashes of burned material come from it. This lava burns every object which comes in its path. Sky also becomes dark due to ashes and dust so transportation in the air becomes difficult.

Why people live near Volcano and How its Eruption can be Predicted

When a volcano explodes from the earth lava comes out in the hotter form. After some time it becomes cold due to this the Fields near volcanoes are mostly very fertile. Due to this farmers always lived near the volcano. During the eruption, every living being mostly farmers near the volcano leaves their places. When the zone becomes safer they came to settle again and start farming there. The exact Eruption of the volcanoes cannot be predicted by any equipment till now. There are natural signs of a volcano eruption that are earthquakes, expansion in the volcano, and gasses coming out from the volcano. The reason behind the extinction of dinosaurs is a volcano eruption due to this their entire population was wiped out from the earth

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